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Macular hole and Vitreomacular traction
Vitreous (a jelly like structure that is attached to the inner retinal surface) can cause traction at the macula resulting in distortion or in advanced cases, a hole at the macula. This can result in distortion of your central vision, central blurred vision and reduced vision. This condition is diagnosed by your Ophthalmologist by examining your eyes and a scan of your macula. In a small group of patients the vitreoretinal traction and macular hole can resolve without any intervention. However most cases require intervention either by an injection of drug in to your eye or the more successful operation called vitrectomy. The outcomes following vitrectomy are very good and vision does improve in patients who have their treatment at an earlier stage.
In this condition a fibrous (scar) tissue forms on the surface of your macula. This condition usually occurs in older people and it causes visual symptoms such as central visual distortion and reduced vision. This occurs when the fibrous tissue contracts and therefore causes distortion of the macula. Your Ophthalmologist will examine your eyes and arrange for a scan of your macula. The treatment for epiretinal membrane is vitrectomy and peeling of this membrane. Some patients may prefer to leave it alone and be evaluated regularly by their Ophthalmologist. This approach is acceptable in mild cases of epiretinal membrane.
Surgery for Floaters
FLoaters may sometime cause significant visual disturbances and are generally as a result of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), liquified vitreous, trauma to the eye or inflammation in side your eye. In most cases you will adept to these symptoms over a period of time. However, in some instances these symptoms may persist resulting in difficulty in performing daily tasks. In these group of patients there are options of having either laser treatment or vitrectomy surgery to reduce or remove the symptoms. Vitrectomy surgery can treat all types of floaters as opposed to laser which is used to treat a limited types of floaters. Your retinal surgeon will discuss your floater management options based on your eye examination.
Retina is like the film of the camera and lines the inner wall of the eye ball. In retinal detachment, the retina gets separated from this attachment usually due to the development of a retinal tear/tears. If untreated, retinal detachment usually results in loss of sight. Therefore it is important to quickly get in touch with your eye surgeon, if you have any symptoms suggestive of retinal detachment ie new floaters, flashing lights and a curtain like shadow. Depending on the type of retinal detachment, the surgery is performed on the outside of the eye ball (explant and cryopexy) or inside the eyeball (vitrectomy). The surgical outcomes are very good with the eventual success of retinal reattachment in the region of 97%.
Complicated cataract and Post cataract surgery complications
Retinal surgeons are also referred patients with complicated cataracts such as subluxated lens and patients with post cataract surgery complications. These cases are challenging and are mainly dealt with the help of a procedure called vitrectomy. In vitrectomy, three very fine openings are made in the white of your eye to gain access to the back compartment of your eye. Very fine instruments are than passed through these 3 openings to remove the vitreous (jelly like substance) and perform the additional steps to manage the problem.